Back to vocabularies

Time Periods

Mesolithic Levant (18000–9500 BC) (18000 BC - 9500 BC)
Epipaleolithic-Protoneolithic Levant, Kebaran-Natufian [[-18000,-9500]]

Mesolithic Middle East (18000–9000 BC) (18000 BC - 9000 BC)
Epipaleolithic-Protoneolithic ME [[-18000,-9000]]

Mesolithic Middle East (18000–9000 BC) (18000 BC - 9000 BC)
Epipaleolithic-Protoneolithic ME [[-18000,-9000]]

Mesolithic Europe (13,000-8,000 BC) (13000 BC - 8000 BC)
The cultural period lying between paleolithic and neolithic, as described at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mesolithic [[-13000,-8000]]

Neolithic Period in the Eastern Mediterranean (ca. 10,000-3,300 BC) (10000 BC - 3300 BC)
The so-called "Neolithic" or "New Stone Age" period as defined in the Eastern portion of the Mediterranean basin, lasting roughly from 10,000 - 3,300 BC. See further: http://ancienthistory.about.com/od/artarchaeologyarchitect/g/neolithic.htm [[-10000, -3300]]

Ubaid period in Mesopotamia (ca. 6500 to 3800 BC) (6500 BC - 3800 BC)
The prehistoric Ubaid period of Mesopotamia, as defined by Wikipedia following Carter, Robert A. and Philip, Graham Beyond the Ubaid: Transformation and Integration in the Late Prehistoric Societies of the Middle East (Studies in Ancient Oriental Civilization, Number 63) The Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago (2010) ISBN 978-1-885923-66-0 p.2, at http://oi.uchicago.edu/research/pubs/catalog/saoc/saoc63.html [[-6500, -3800]]

Chalcolithic Mesopotamia (6200–3750 BC) (6200 BC - 3750 BC)
Copper Age Mesopotamia, Halaf-Ubaid-Early Uruk Mesopotamia [[-6200,-3750]]

Neolithic Egypt (6000-4500 BCE/BC) (6000 BC - 4500 BC)
The Neolithic period in Egypt, following the chronology of the UCLA Encyclopedia of Egyptology (compiled by Thomas Schneider): http://www.uee.ucla.edu/contributors/chronology.htm. [[-6000, -4500]]

Ubaid-Early Dynastic II Mesopotamia (5500–2600 BC) (5500 BC - 2600 BC)
Late Chalcolithic-ED II Mesopotamia, Ubaid-Uruk-Jemdet Nasr-ED Mesopotamia [[-5500,-2600]]

Neolithic Period on Malta (ca. 5,000-2,500BC) (5000 BC - 2500 BC)
The neolithic or so-called "New Stone Age" as expressed in remains of physical culture on the island of Malta, where it appears to have lasted from around 5,000 to 2,500 BC [[-5000, -2500]]

Predynastic Egypt (4500-2950 BCE/BC) (4500 BC - 2950 BC)
The predynastic period in Egypt, following the chronology of the UCLA Encyclopedia of Egyptology (compiled by Thomas Schneider): http://www.uee.ucla.edu/contributors/chronology.htm. [[-4500, -2950]]

4th millenium BCE (4000 BC - 3000 BC)
The fourth millenium BCE as defined at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/4th_millennium_BC [[-4000, -3000]]

Neolithic Period (British Isles; 4,000-2,500 BC) (4000 BC - 2500 BC)
The Neolithic period in the British Isles, after Wikipedia, Neolithic British Isles, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neolithic_British_Isles. [[-4000, -2500]]

Uruk Mesopotamia (4000–2950 BC) (4000 BC - 2950 BC)
Protoliterate Mesopotamia [[-4000,-2950]]

Old Nubian (3800–2300 BC) (3800 BC - 2300 BC)
A-Group/Old Nubian—Middle Nubian—OK [[-3800,-2300]]

Elamite Western Iran (3200–540 BC) (3200 BC - 540 BC)
Proto—Old—Middle—Neo-Elamite [[-3200,-540]]

Early Minoan (Crete; 3100-2000 BC) (3100 BC - 2000 BC)
Early Minoan period on Crete, after Shelmerdine, The Cambridge Companion to the Aegean Bronze Age, Cambridge UP, 2008. PeriodO URI: http://n2t.net/ark:/99152/p0qp9rs8fgh. [[-3100,-2000]]

Early Helladic (Mainland Greece; 3000-2000 BC) (3000 BC - 2000 BC)
The Early Helladic period in the Greek mainland, after Preziosi and Hitchcock, Aegean Art and Architecture, Oxford History of Art, 1998. [[-3000,-2000]]

3rd millennium BC (3000 BC - 2000 BC)
The 3rd millennium BC spans the Early to Middle Bronze Age. As described at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/3rd_millennium_BC. [[-3000, -2000]]

Early Dynastic Egypt (2950-2670 BCE/BC) (2950 BC - 2670 BC)
The Early Dynastic period in Egypt, following the chronology of the UCLA Encyclopedia of Egyptology (compiled by Thomas Schneider): http://www.uee.ucla.edu/contributors/chronology.htm. [[-2950, -2670]]

Old Kingdom Egypt (2670-2168 BCE/BC) (2670 BC - 2168 BC)
The Old Kingdom period in Egypt, following the chronology of the UCLA Encyclopedia of Egyptology (compiled by Thomas Schneider): http://www.uee.ucla.edu/contributors/chronology.htm. [[-2670, -2168]]

Bronze Age Britain (ca. 2500 - ca. 800 BC/BCE) (2500 BC - 800 BC)
A long time period associated with Bronze Age Britain. [[-2500, -800]]

Bronze Age Malta (ca. 2,500-700 BC) (2500 BC - 700 BC)
The Bronze age as represented in the remains of physical culture from the island of Malta. [[-2500, -700]]

Akkadian-Ur III Mesopotamia (2335–2000 BC) (2335 BC - 2000 BC)
Akkadian—Neo-Sumerian Mesopotamia [[-2335,-2000]]

Middle Nubian (2300–1600 BC) (2300 BC - 1600 BC)
C-Group—Kerma—Middle Nubian—Pan-Grave—MK [[-2300,-1600]]

First Intermediate Period Egypt (2168-2010 BCE/BC) (2168 BC - 2010 BC)
The First Intermediate Period in Egypt, following the chronology of the UCLA Encyclopedia of Egyptology (compiled by Thomas Schneider): http://www.uee.ucla.edu/contributors/chronology.htm. [[-2168, -2010]]

Middle Kingdom Egypt (2010-1640 BCE/BC) (2010 BC - 1640 BC)
The Middle Kingdom period in Egypt, following the chronology of the UCLA Encyclopedia of Egyptology (compiled by Thomas Schneider): http://www.uee.ucla.edu/contributors/chronology.htm. [[-2010, -1640]]

2nd Millenium BCE (2000 BC - 1000 BC)
The second millenium BCE as defined at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2nd_millennium_BC [[-2000, -1000]]

Middle Helladic (Mainland Greece; 2000-1600 BC) (2000 BC - 1600 BC)
The Middle Helladic period in the Greek mainland, after Preziosi and Hitchcock, Aegean Art and Architecture, Oxford History of Art, 1998. [[-2000, -1600]]

2nd Millennium BC Levant (2000–1000 BC) (2000 BC - 1000 BC)
MBA Levant-LBA Levant-Iron Age I Levant [not sure as these are all taken from southern Levant periodisation] [[-2000,-1000]]

Middle Minoan (Crete; 2000-1600 BC/BCE) (2000 BC - 1600 BC)
The Middle Minoan period on Crete, as defined in C. Shelmerdine, The Cambridge Companion to the Aegean Bronze Age (2008), p. 4, figure 1.1. [[-2000,-1600]]

Old Hittite Anatolia (1650–1450 BC) (1650 BC - 1450 BC)
Old-Middle Kingdom Hittite [[-1650,-1450]]

Second Intermediate Period Egypt (1640-1548) (1640 BC - 1548 BC)
The Second Intermediate period in Egypt, following the chronology of the UCLA Encyclopedia of Egyptology (compiled by Thomas Schneider): http://www.uee.ucla.edu/contributors/chronology.htm. [[-1640, -1548]]

Late Helladic (Mainland Greece; 1600-1200 BC) (1600 BC - 1200 BC)
The Late Helladic period in the Greek mainland, after Preziosi and Hitchcock, Aegean Art and Architecture, Oxford History of Art, 1998. [[-1600, -1200]]

Later 2nd Millennium BC Mesopotamia (1600–1000 BC) (1600 BC - 1000 BC)
Middle Assyrian/Middle Babylonian/Kassite Mesopotamia, LBA-Early Iron Age Mesopotamia, incl. Sea Peoples [[-1600,-1000]]

Late Nubian (1600–350 BC) (1600 BC - 350 BC)
NK-Kushite-Meroitic [[-1600,-350]]

Late Bronze Age Anatolia (1600-1200 BC) (1600 BC - 1200 BC)
Late Bronze Age Anatolia [[-1600,-1200]]

Late Minoan (Crete; 1600-1080 BC/BCE) (1600 BC - 1080 BC)
The Late Minoan period on Crete, as defined in C. Shelmerdine, The Cambridge Companion to the Aegean Bronze Age (2008), p. 4. PeriodO URI: http://n2t.net/ark:/99152/p0qp9rssm67. [[-1600,-1080]]

New Kingdom Egypt (1548-1086) (1548 BC - 1086 BC)
The New Kingdom period in Egypt, following the chronology of the UCLA Encyclopedia of Egyptology (compiled by Thomas Schneider): http://www.uee.ucla.edu/contributors/chronology.htm. [[-1548, -1086]]

Neo-Hittite Northern Levant (1200–700 BC) (1200 BC - 700 BC)
Syro-Hittite Northern Levant [[-1200,-700]]

1200 BC Middle East (1200 BC - 1199 BC)
ME, Greece [[-1200, -1199]]

Third Intermediate Period Egypt (1086-664) (1086 BC - 664 BC)
The Third Intermediate period in Egypt, following the chronology of the UCLA Encyclopedia of Egyptology (compiled by Thomas Schneider): http://www.uee.ucla.edu/contributors/chronology.htm. [[-1086, -664]]

Early Iron Age Iran (1000–650 BC) (1000 BC - 650 BC)
Pre-Classical Antiquity [[-1000,-650]]

Iron Age Italy (Latial Culture I, 1000-900 BC) (1000 BC - 900 BC)
Latial I is concentrated around Rome, the Alban Hills, and the Monti della Tolfa. [[-1000, -900]]

Early Geometric (Greek; 900-850 BC) (900 BC - 850 BC)
The Early Geometric period in ancient Greece, from 900-850 before the birth of Christ. [[-900, -850]]

Castro Culture (Iron Age, ca. 900 BC - 100 BC) (900 BC - 100 BC)
The Castro Culture is an archaeological term describing the material culture of Celtic peoples of the Iberian peninsula during the first millennium BC, as described at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Castro_culture. [[-900,-100]]

Middle Geometric (Greek; 850-750 BC) (850 BC - 750 BC)
The Middle Geometric period in ancient Greece, from 850-750 before the birth of Christ. [[-850, -750]]

Iron Age Britain (ca. 800 BC/BCE - ca. 100 AD/CE) (800 BC - AD 100)
A long time period associated with Iron Age Britain. [[-800, 100]]

Archaic (Greco-Roman; 750-550 BCE/BC) (750 BC - 550 BC)
The Archaic period in Greek and Roman history. For the purposes of Pleiades, this period is seen to begin in the year 750 and end in the year 550 before the birth of Christ. [[-750, -550]]

Late Period Egypt (664-332) (664 BC - 332 BC)
The Late Period in Egypt, following the chronology of the UCLA Encyclopedia of Egyptology (compiled by Thomas Schneider): http://www.uee.ucla.edu/contributors/chronology.htm. [[-664, -332]]

Classical (Greco-Roman; 550 BC-330 BC) (550 BC - 330 BC)
The Classical period in Greek and Roman history. For the purposes of Pleiades, this period is said to begin in the year 550 and end in the year 330 before the birth of Christ. [[-550, -330]]

Achaemenid-Roman Levant (540 BC – AD 324) (540 BC - AD 324)
Persian-Hellenistic-Roman Levant [[-540,324]]

Achaemenid Central Asia (540 BC - 330 BC)
Period as defined by Sören Stark [[-540, -330]]

Macedonian Egypt (332-304 BCE/BC) (332 BC - 304 BC)
The Macedonian period in Egypt, following the chronology of the UCLA Encyclopedia of Egyptology (compiled by Thomas Schneider): http://www.uee.ucla.edu/contributors/chronology.htm. [[-332, -304]]

Hellenistic Greek, Roman Republic (330 BC-30 BC) (330 BC - 30 BC)
The Hellenistic period in Greek history and the middle-to-late Republican period in Roman history. For the purposes of Pleiades, this period is said to begin in the year 330 and end in the year 30 before the birth of Christ. [[-330, -30]]

Hellenistic Middle East (330–140 BC) (330 BC - 140 BC)
Macedonian—Seleucid/Ptolemaic/Attalid/Greco-Bactrian [[-330, -140]]

Hellenistic-Parthian Middle East (330 BC – AD 226) (330 BC - AD 226)
Seleucid-Early Roman-Arsacid Middle East [[-330,226]]

Hellenistic Central Asia (330 BC - 100 BC)
As defined by Sören Stark [[-330, -100]]

Ptolemaic Egypt (304-30 BCE/BC) (304 BC - 30 BC)
The Ptolemaic period in Egypt, following the chronology of the UCLA Encyclopedia of Egyptology (compiled by Thomas Schneider): http://www.uee.ucla.edu/contributors/chronology.htm. [[-304, -30]]

Kangju-Yuezhi-Kushan period in Central Asia (100 BC - AD 250)
Period as defined by Sören Stark [[-100, 250]]

Roman-Umayyad Levant (37 BC – AD 1099) (37 BC - AD 1099)
Roman-Byzantine-Caliphate-Umayyad Levant [[-37,1099]]

Roman, early Empire (30 BC-AD 300) (30 BC - AD 300)
The Roman period (i.e., the early Roman Empire) in Greek and Roman history. For the purposes of Pleiades, this period is said to begin in the year 30 before the birth of Christ and to end in the year 300 after the birth of Christ. [[-30, 300]]

Roman Britain (43 - 410 CE/AD) (AD 43 - AD 410)
Simon Hornblower and Antony Spawforth, eds. (1998). The Oxford Companion to Classical Civilization. Oxford University Press.

Late Antiquity in Central Asia (AD 250 - AD 550)
Period as defined by Sören Stark [[250, 550]]

Late Antique (AD 300-AD 640) (AD 300 - AD 640)
The Late Antique period in Greek and Roman history. For the purposes of Pleiades, this period is said to begin in the year 300 and to end in the year 640 after the birth of Christ. [[300, 640]]

Proto-Byzantine (AD 500–650) (AD 500 - AD 650)
Early Byzantine; includes Justinian I [[500, 650]]

Pre-Islamic Early Middle Ages in Central Asia (AD 550 - AD 750)
Period as defined by Sören Stark [[550, 750]]

Persian-Medieval Caucasus (AD 600–1500) (AD 600 - AD 1500)
Persian—Arabic—Early Medieval—Middle Medieval—Turco-Mongol/Late Medieval Caucasus [[600,1500]]

Caliphate-Umayyad Middle East (AD 632–750) (AD 632 - AD 750)
Early Islamic, Rashidun-Umayyad [starts with death of Muhammed who only controlled Arabia] [[632,750]]

Caliphate-Fatimid Southern Levant (AD 632–1150) (AD 632 - AD 1150)
Caliphate/Rashidun-Umayyad-Abassid-Fatimid southern Levant [[632,1150]]

Mediaeval/Byzantine (AD 641-AD 1453) (AD 640 - AD 1453)
The Mediaeval period in the West, or the period from the end of Late Antiquity (640) to the fall of Constantinople in the East (1453). [[640, 1453]]

Early Byzantine (AD 650-850) (AD 650 - AD 850)
Early Byzantine Period in areas where such designations are appropriate. [[650, 850]]

Ummayad Period (661-750CE) (AD 661 - AD 750)
The period of the Umayyad Caliphate as defined by http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Umayyad_Caliphate [[661, 750]]

Abassid Middle East (AD 750–940) (AD 750 - AD 940)
ME, northern Africa [[750, 940]]

Abbasid Period in Central Asia (AD 750 - AD 875)
Period as defined by Sören Stark [[750, 875]]

Middle Byzantine (AD 850-1200) (AD 850 - AD 1200)
Middle Byzantine period in areas where such designations are appropriate. [[850, 1200]]

Early Medieval Caucasus (AD 850–1200) (AD 850 - AD 1200)
Bagratid, Kingdom of Armenia/Kingdom of Georgia [[850,1200]]

Samanid Period in Central Asia (AD 875 - AD 1000)
Period as defined by Sören Stark [[875, 1000]]

Fatimid Middle East (AD 950–1150) (AD 950 - AD 1150)
Western ME, northern Africa [[950,1150]]

Qarakhanid Period in Central Asia (AD 1000 - AD 1200)
Period as defined by Sören Stark [[1000, 1200]]

Rum/Crusader Anatolia (AD 1077–1307) (AD 1077 - AD 1307)
Seljuk-Latin States/Francocracy [[1077, 1307]]

Crusader/Byzantine/Seljuq Middle East (AD 1081–1204) (AD 1081 - AD 1204)
Latin/1st-4th Crusades—end of Middle Byzantine—Rum/Seljuq [[1081, 1204]]

Crusader-Ottoman Levant (AD 1099–1750) (AD 1099 - AD 1750)
Crusader-Seljuq-Ayyubid-Mamluk-Ottoman Levant [[1099,1750]]

Late Byzantine Period (AD 1200-1450) (AD 1200 - AD 1450)
Late Byzantine Period in contexts where such designations are appropriate. [[1200, 1450]]

13th Century AD Eastern Mediterranean (AD 1200–1300) (AD 1200 - AD 1300)
Late Byzantine-Ayyubid-Mamluk Western Middle East [[1200,1300]]

Late Medieval Caucasus (AD 1200–1500) (AD 1200 - AD 1500)
Turco-Mongol, Seljuq-Georgian-Ilkhanate-Turkmen Caucasus [[1200,1500]]

Ilkhanate Middle East (AD 1258–1335) (AD 1258 - AD 1335)
Ilkhanid, Hulagu, Early Mongol [[1258,1335]]

Ottoman Rise (AD 1300–1453) (AD 1300 - AD 1453)
ends with the conquest of Constantinople [[1300, 1453]]

Ottoman Empire (AD ca 1300-1923) (AD 1300 - AD 1923)
Period as defined by Elias Kolovos

Timurid Middle East (AD 1370–1501) (AD 1370 - AD 1501)
Eastern ME, Central Asia [[1370,1501]]

Early Ottoman Empire (AD 1453–1683) (AD 1453 - AD 1683)
ends with the siege of Vienna [[1453,1683]]

Perso-Ottoman-Russian Caucasus (AD 1500–1918) (AD 1500 - AD 1918)
Safavid-Qajar-Ottoman Empire-Russian Empire Caucasus [[1500,1918]]

Safavid Middle East (AD 1501–1725) (AD 1501 - AD 1725)
Eastern ME, Central Asia [[1501,1725]]

Ottoman Empire (AD 1513–1918) (AD 1513 - AD 1918)
ME, Balkan, Northern Africa [[1513,1918]]

Late Ottoman Empire (AD 1683–1918) (AD 1683 - AD 1918)
ME, Balkan, Northern Africa [[1683,1918]]

Modern (AD 1700-Present) (AD 1700 - AD 2100)
Our present, modern era. [[1700, 2100]]

Khedivate Egypt (AD 1800–1922) (AD 1800 - AD 1922)
Muhammed Ali-Khedivate Egypt, Alawiyya Egypt, Anglo-Egyptian [[1800,1922]]

Colonial-Modern Middle East (AD 1800–2000) (AD 1800 - AD 2000)
Late Ottoman-Colonial-Mandate Modern Middle east [[1800,2000]]