You are here: Home Help Citation Types

Skip to content. | Skip to navigation

Citation Types

Creators: Tom Elliott Copyright © The Contributors. Sharing and remixing permitted under terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License (cc-by).
Last modified Aug 18, 2016 02:55 PM
tags: , ,
This document explains the various citation types that are assigned to bibliographic references in Pleiades places, names, locations, and connections.

The editors encourage the classification of references in Pleiades in order to indicate the purpose of the reference and its relevance to the citation context. When adding or editing references, Pleiades contributors are presented with a menu of citation types, as defined below. The selected citation type for each reference is shown in the relevant reference listing and is also included in the various export serializations of the relevant information resources.

Citation types used in Pleiades:

See further
The referenced work provides information that principally addresses the same topic as the information resource in Pleiades where the citation is made. The use of this term implies that the content of the referenced work has been consulted by the Pleiades contributor. Caveats concerning assertions made in the referenced work should be expressed in the "details" field of the relevant Pleiades information resource. "See further" may be used as a citation type on Pleiades places, names, locations, and connections. In Pleiades linked data serializations, the "citesForInformation" term from the CiTO (Citation Typing Ontology) is used for references that employ the "see further" citation type.
See also
The reference work provides information about the topic addressed by the information resource in Pleiades, but it principally addresses another (usually wider) topic. The use of this term implies that the content of the referenced work has been consulted by the Pleiades contributor. Caveats concerning assertions made in the referenced work should be expressed in the "details" field of the relevant Pleiades information resource. "See also" may be used as a citation type on Pleiades places, names, locations, and connections. In Pleiades linked data serializations, the CiTO term "citesAsRelated" is used for references that employ the "see also" citation type.
Related
The referenced work provides information related to the topic addressed by the information resource in Pleiades, but it does not provide substantive additional information (and therefore "see also" and "see further" are not appropriate options). "Related" is also currently used for cross-references to other digital gazetteers and online GISs, such as DAREDARMC, GeoNames, and Trismegistos Places (although this usage may change in future). "Related" may be used as a citation type on Pleiades places, names, locations, and connections. In Pleiades linked data serializations, the term "seeAlso" from the RDF Schema is used for references that employ the "related" citation type.
Evidence
This citation type may be used on Pleiades names only. It reflects the contributor's assertion that the referenced work is a primary textual source (modern edition or facsimile, or the original text-bearing object itself) and that said work is a witness to the name variant being documented. In Pleiades linked data serializations, the CiTo term "citesAsEvidence" is used for references that employ the "evidence" citation type.
Data Source
This citation type may be used on Pleiades locations only. It is only used when location data (i.e., coordinates and associated quantitative information) is imported programmatically into Pleiades from another database or dataset). At present, it is only used for location data imported from OpenStreetMap in compliance with their open license. The CiTo term "citesAsDataSource" is used for references that employ the "data source" citation type.
Citation
This citation type is meant to be used when none of the other Pleiades citation types are appropriate. Its most common use is for references imported programmatically from other datasets in which the function or purpose of the references are not easily correlated to the Pleiades citation types. Pleiades contributors are encouraged to view references with the plain "citation" type as invitations to review the work cited and submit changes to the corresponding Pleiades information resource that either classify the citation more accurately or replace it with a reference to a more appropriate work. The editors discourage the selection of this citation type for manually entered references. The CiTO term "cites" is used for references that employ the "citation" citation type.